<참고> 소련붕괴,폴란드와 바르샤바,동유럽혁명에 관한 정보를 원하시는 분이라면,그 키포인트를 소련해체란,폴란드에서 시작된 노동자혁명의 도미노현상의 결과란 사실에 두어야, 가장 정확한 답이 나옵니다.그러지 않는 경우,소련붕괴원인을 찾는 것이 대단히 혼란스럽고,그러다보면 동유럽 전체가 아니라,러시아국내정치의 역학관계만을 탐구하여,고르바초프의 실정이나 정권다툼,등등의 부분적 요인으로만 그 원인을 찾게 되는 오류를 범합니다.

 

자세한 내용은 여기 클릭 ☞폴란드(2차대전 피해자,동유럽혁명)역사,소련붕괴-고르바초프,천년 고도 크라코프

 

 

기도의 힘!!!

하느님의 힘!!!

 

아무리 악마가 강하다해도 하느님을 당할 수 없다!

 

 

클릭 ☞1부,carpe diem오늘을 살라-교황 요한 바오로2세,우리에게는 키팅선생이다

 

클릭 ☞ 2부 교황 요한바오로2세-파티마의 예언(파시즘 등장) 영화-Pius XII (비오12세)“ (3)

 

클릭 ☞ 한국,지금,정말 기도가 많이 필요한 때네요!!!안철수와 민주당

 

 

텍사스시각으로 2013년 6월25일,한국인끼리 동족상잔이라는 잔혹사가 일어난 날인,오늘의 포스팅주제가 참으로 운명적입니다!! 요즘 너무나 잘 짜여진 각본처럼 만들어지는 글들이 바로 공산주의가 몰락하는 순간으로 날라 다니는 중이었습니다.그렇게 오늘,다시 한번 저는 야훼이레를 외치는 중입니다.지금이 바로 한국인들에게는 하느님의 자비를 비는 기도가 필요한 절대절명의 순간입니다.

 

마치 그리스도신앙의 종말을 선언했었던 마르크스,히틀러, 레닌,스탈린을 조롱하듯이 운명의 그 날,1979년 6월8일, 교황 요한바오로2세의 고향 폴란드방문에 운집한 폴란드국민들,인간의 목숨을 파리목숨처럼 잡아 없애던 스탈린이 장담했었습니다.사악한 현대종교(그리스도의 교회)는 이제 지구상에서 영원히 사라질 것이며 공산정권이 이 세상을 지배할 것이라고!!

 

 

자발적으로 운집한 군중이 열광하는 이 사진 속 모습을 실감하고싶다면 아래 동영상을 클릭하시라.

A huge crowd gathers at a papal Mass in the town of Nowy Targ on June 8, 1979

 

 

 

..........이 영화는 유튜브에서 가져온 자료로 원문전체읽기는 하단의 자료 Pope John Paul II’s 1979 Pilgrimage to Poland-영문읽기 가능한 분,필독하시라,정말 감동...그 자체네요!! 야훼이레!! 2차대전과 공산정권(파시즘)의 시작이 바로 1939년의 나치독일의 폴란드침공에서 시작되었고,

 

 

이 전쟁의 끝이었던 1945년 8월15일은 나치정권과 추축국이 몰락하던 날이며, 소련정권이 이 지상에 탄탄하게 터를 잡던 날이었다면 ,다시 이  공산주의의 몰락이 운명적으로 폴란드에서 시작됩니다.자세한 내용은 여기  클릭 ☞ 폴란드(2차대전 피해자,동유럽혁명)역사,소련붕괴-고르바초프,천년 고도 크라코프 (1) 

 

 

고르바초프는 이렇게 회고하기도 하였다. “최근 마지막 몇 해 동안 동유럽에서 일어난 이 모든 것은 교황의 존재가 없었더라면 일어날 수 없었을 것이다. 그의 큰 역할, 정치적 역할이 없었더라면 말이다. 그는 세계무대에서 자기 역할을 연출할 줄 알았다.”

 

 

바로 그 역사적인 현장으로 따라가봅시다.Pope John Paul II’s 1979 Pilgrimage to Poland..

 

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아래 소개된 자료를 한국어로 먼저 배경지식을 이해하고 읽으면 독해가 더 빨라집니다.혹은 영어읽기 어려운분들이 필독할 포스팅 2개입니다 .2개 중에서 우선

 

여기 클릭  ☞ 소련 반체제 인사,솔제니친Solzhenitsyn,수용소군도,암병동,이반 데니소비치의 하루

위의 글을 읽은 분이라면,

여기 클릭  ☞ 폴란드(2차대전 피해자,동유럽혁명)역사,소련붕괴-고르바초프,천년 고도 크라코프 (1)

 

 

 

폴란드를 소개하는 한 싸이트에서 퍼온 글 There is something of a syndrome that great Poles are cut down in their prime. There was Napoleon's dashing marshal, Jozef Poniatowski, who drowned in the River Elbe, and World War II Commander General Sikorski, who died in a mysterious plane crash in 1943. And then there are the legions of artists from Chopin to Wyspianski who all fell before their time.

 

In May 1981 it looked like the same fate was due for Karol Wojtyla, Pope John Paul II. He had just ascended the throne of St. Peter's, and his visit to Poland in 1979 had provided the catalyst for the heroic Solidarity protest movement. Moscow was tearing its hair out. Of all the people in the world who might have been elected Pope, Wojtyla was their nightmare choice.

 

Then the assassin's bullet struck.


Perhaps we'll never know whether the attempt on the Pope's life was organized by the KGB. A new inquiry has just been prompted after Bulgarian Cold War files relating to the case were found sopping wet in an old storeroom. But either way, Poland's best-loved son survived. Not only did he survive, he went on. In fact he went on and on and on - seeing out the collapse of the Iron Curtain in 1989 as well as Poland's accession to the EU in 2004. In the meantime he zoomed back and forth across the world with all the energy of a twenty year old.

 

 

이동해서,필독 클릭☞파우스티나수녀,빛의 신비-폴란드(성인,성녀)들-교황 요한 바오로 2세,파티마의예언

 

 

To the Poles he was a hero. Certainly, it would be wrong to claim that all Poles agreed with every policy of their Pope. But this did little to diminish their pride and affection for him. He is remembered here in Cracow (where he eventually became archbishop for 15 years) as an extraordinarily warm and caring soul who always had time for his flock. Cracovians called him Uncle. He was a keen sportsman, who hiked, canoed and skied at any given opportunity, often with groups of loyal students. And his sense of humour rarely failed. When he was awarded the Cardinal's hat, someone suggested that it was inappropriate for a man in such a position to ski. He replied with typical wit: "It is unbecoming for a cardinal to ski badly!"

 

 

The news that Pope Benedict XVI had begun the process for the canonization of his predecessor was warmly received by the Poles. For many in the West, the concept of sainthood is a somewhat peculiar one. However, given that millions of Poles are already praying to John Paul, this is a most natural step. Pope John Paul II will join an elite group of Cracow saints, the first of whom, St. Stanislas, was canonised in 1253. Cracow has been a destination for pilgrims since its earliest days, a tradition that will only strengthen with the canonization of John Paul. Cracow's 'Uncle' may not have been buried here in the end, but the echoes of his presence can be witnessed all around, from statues to churches to his former home itself, the centuries old Archbishop's palace.

 

 

Pope John Paul II’s 1979 Pilgrimage to Poland

Pope John Paul II

 

 

Standing in front of one million Poles in Warsaw, Poland on June 2, 1979, Pope John Paul II had just declared that Christ is an inherent part of man’s life and “cannot be kept out of the history of man in any part of the globe” when he was suddenly interrupted by fourteen minutes of unabated applause from the entire crowd (John Paul II, “Homily in Victory Square”). Such a poignant moment demonstrates that Poles were completely enthralled with the pope and his uplifting message. This powerful homily is just one of several that John Paul II gave during his historic pilgrimage to Poland from June 2-10, 1979.

 

 During this time, thirteen million Poles—one third of the country—would see him in person, and his inspirational and nonpartisan messages would captivate nearly every Catholic in Poland, particularly at a time of increasing discontent with communist rule (Kubik, The Power of Symbols, 139). The papal visit of 1979 intensified concepts like unity, human dignity, and optimism in Poland, and as a result, anti-communist sentiment could strengthen and coalesce, leaving the country ripe for a peaceful revolution at a time of political unrest and discontent.

 

 

In order to understand the significance of the pope’s visit, it is important to first understand the history of Catholic opposition in communist Poland prior to 1979. After WWII, the communists imposed restrictions on the Church and declared that Marxism, not Catholicism, would be the national identity. This was a problem, considering that Poland had identified itself as a strongly Catholic nation for centuries. In opposition to the state’s restrictions, Catholicism  continued to grow within private homes and churches. In 1956, the regime temporarily liberalized their policies and allowed the first Catholic opposition group to be represented in Parliament, but by 1957, the Church-state relationship had deteriorated again. By the 1960s, Vatican II, which allowed the vernacular to be used in Mass, helped spread Catholicism to even more Poles, much to the chagrin of the state. 

 

 

During the 1970s, more priests began to speak out in defense of human rights and family values, and they increasingly criticized the immorality of totalitarianism; not surprisingly, this sentiment appealed to the people of Poland (Kubik, The Power of Symbols, 180).  By the end of the 1970s, Catholic opposition to communism was already in existence, it just needed to be electrified, and that is exactly what the pope would do. Eight months after his election, John Paul II—born as Karol Wojtyla—returned to his homeland of Poland for a nine day pilgrimage of prayer and almsgiving from June 2-10, 1979.

 

The Polish nation, being over 90% Catholic, was extremely excited to welcome home the first Polish pope. The regime was less than thrilled. They saw John Paul II as an enemy who would demand equal rights and meddle with the entire communist system. Although they begrudgingly agreed to broadcast the pope’s visit, the state censored coverage in an attempt to minimize the pope’s impact (Kubik, The Power of Symbols, 137). In reality, however, the effect of his pilgrimage was anything but minimal.

 

The papal message would be received by almost every Pole, and although it was mainly intended to be a purely spiritual message, it would end up having huge political implications, as well.

 

One million Poles attend Mass in Victory Square on June 2, 1979.

 

By emphasizing the links between Catholicism and Poland, the pope was able to inspire a stronger sense of Catholic-Polish unity that resonated at a time when Catholics felt alone in an officially secular state. Prior to the papal visit, Catholics constituted a vast majority in Poland, but they lacked a strong sense of cohesion. This changed after 1979. The fact that the leader of the Catholic Church was a fellow Pole deepened the connection between Catholicism and Poland, and John Paul II made sure to remind the people of this relationship by calling himself “a son of the land of Poland” and referring to the people as “beloved sons and daughters of my motherland” (John Paul II, “Homily in Victory Square”). 

 

Upon hearing reminders of his roots, Catholic Poles felt that they were not alone anymore because their pope, a fellow Pole, would say special prayers on their behalf. John Paul II also increased unity between the Church and Poland by reiterating just how central Christ was in Polish culture and heritage. In one homily, he stated that “from its beginnings Polish culture bears very clear Christian signs…It is still so today. Christian inspiration continues to be the chief source of the creativity of Polish artists” (John Paul II, “Homily for Young People at Gniezno”).

 

 

According to John Paul II, God was ingrained in the identity of Poland, and that union could not be erased. By drawing on these connections between religion and Poland, the pope strengthened a sense of spiritual solidarity. Poles felt, now more than ever, that they were all united with each other in Christ.  Although the pope never explicitly mentioned communism, his emphasis on religion certainly contradicted the communist regime’s idea of a secular state. As a result of his visit, the nation’s intensified sense of religious unity would pose a formidable threat for the communist state.

 

Pope John Paul II prays at the “Death Wall” at Auschwitz.

 

By remarking upon Nazi atrocities and discussing the philosophy of work, John Paul II also strengthened notions of human rights and dignity; this was particularly powerful, considering the oppression faced under the communist regime in Poland. On his visit to the Auschwitz-Birkenau camps on June 7, the pope held Mass in honor of the Holocaust victims. During his homily, he was quick to emphasize that such a camp was “built to…trample radically not only on love but on all signs of human dignity, of humanity. A place built on hatred and on contempt for man in the name of a crazed ideology” (John Paul II, “Homily at Brzezinka”).

 

Without overtly referencing a specific ideology, these remarks evoked uncomfortable similarities between fascism and communism; both were restricting basic freedoms to promote their respective ideologies. Such a parallel did not fall on deaf ears, and it led Poles to examine how their own state was disrespecting human rights by censoring media, restricting religious freedoms, and forcing workers to work long hours in dangerous conditions for low wages (Lukowski and Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, 307).

 

John Paul II furthered this narrative on human rights by addressing groups of workers across Poland. While praising the virtues of a strong work ethic, he also warned people, “do not let yourselves be seduced by the temptation to think that man can fully find himself by…remaining only a worker, deluding himself that what he produces can on its own fill the needs of the human heart” (John Paul II, “Homily for the Workers at Jasna Gora”). His belief that human dignity, or self-respect, came from a well-rounded life contradicted the communistic focus on work and productivity. During his pilgrimage, John Paul II gave dignity new significance; he made it seem like something all men should have, and as a result, Poles began to long for human rights and respect with even more vigor than they had in the past.  Naturally, this heightened the anti-communist wave that was already growing in Poland.

 

 

Finally, at a time when many Poles were fearful about where their country was heading, the pope offered a refreshing hope for the future by calling on the country to have faith in God, who was guiding and protecting Poland. By the 1970s, the economic hardships of rising prices, food shortages, and smaller wages coupled with the discontent over the communist regime, and as a result, the outlook for the country looked increasingly bleak (Lukowski and Zawadzki, A Concise History of Poland, 312).

 

The papal pilgrimage helped alleviate some of this pessimism.  In his first homily of the visit, John Paul II appealed to God: “Let your Spirit descend and renew the face of the earth, the face of this land” (John Paul II, “Homily in Victory Square”). This remark strengthened the sense that God was protecting the people of Poland.  The pope also urged the people to not be afraid, to put their faith in God, and to “never be defeated” (John Paul II, “Homily in Krakow”).  This uplifting message was well received by the nation. They were motivated, now more than ever, to stand up to the regime and demand a better future.

 

 

John Paul II’s love of Poland is evident in this photo. The pope weeps as he prepares to leave Krakow, Poland on June 10, 1979.

 

 

Because unity, dignity, and optimism are all abstract feelings, it is difficult to say with certainty exactly how John Paul II’s visit is linked to the fall of communism in Poland; many scholars, however, do their best to explain this connection. One scholar argues that the pope’s simple, precise language allowed for strong Catholic discourse to emerge on the public sphere after years of being confined to churches. As a result, the people chose to rally behind this coherent, refreshing Catholic platform, and the old rhetoric of communism no longer dominated the public arena (Kubik, The Power of Symbols, 150).

 

Although a change in discourse may have been extremely important in the dissolution of communism, there was another, more concrete, effect of the papal visit on the regime.  The 1980 creation of Solidarity, the first independent trade union in Poland, was a crucial factor in forcing the state to negotiate with the people, and the leader of Solidarity, Lech Walesa, cites John Paul II’s pilgrimage as a major force in the union’s creation.

 

According to Walesa, “the pope showed us how numerous we were and showed us the…power we had if we joined together as one. We stopped being afraid and gathered together 10 million people in our trade union, Solidarity, which changed the face of this earth” (Walesa, “Rescuing Morality”). Solidarity serves as a concrete example of how Poles were able to channel their newfound energy in a productive way.

Prior to 1979, Poles were already longing for reform; they just needed a spark to galvanize their movement, and the pilgrimage of Pope John Paul II provided such a spark. 

 

 

Because of Pope John Paul II’s emphasis on unity, human dignity, and optimism in Poland, opponents of communism now had a strong, focused lens through which to demand change. They were no longer plagued by weak unity, uncertainty, and pessimism.  Rather, they felt firmly united by Christ, focused on human rights, and optimistic about the future. Armed with these strong ideas, Poles could finally pursue a clear agenda that would eventually come to fruition in the 1980s.

 

A huge crowd gathers at a papal Mass in the town of Nowy Targ on June 8, 1979.

 

Required Assignment

To gain a better understanding of the rhetorical strategies the pope uses to convey his points, please read one or two of his speeches. What are some rhetorical strategies he employs? For example, how does he try to establish logos, ethos, and pathos?  (For a quick refresher on these rhetorical concepts, click here.)

 

Note:  You should focus more on ethos and pathos (since these are what his speeches rely on), but see if you can find some subtle logos, as well.

Homily at Victory Square
Homily at Auschwitz
Farewell Address

Suggested Additional Resources

To get a better sense of John Paul II’s visit, take a look at this brief video:

 

Also, if you would like to get a better idea of the atmosphere in Poland during the papal visit, check out the newspaper article, “Pope John Paul II Going Home and All Poland Waits” by Norman Webster, published in Globe and Mail on June 2, 1979. Although it was published in Canada, the author reports from within Warsaw. It provides useful descriptions of the excitement in Warsaw, and it also touches upon potential effects of the pilgrimage.

 

 

Works Cited


Dlugan, Andrew. “Ethos, Pathos, and Logos: 3 Pillars of Public Speaking.” Six Minutes. Accessed November 26, 2012. http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/ethos-pathos-logos/.

John Paul II. “Homily at Brzezinka Concentration Camp.” Speech, Poland, June 7, 1979. Vatican: The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/ 1979/ documents.

 

John Paul II. “Homily at Gniezno: for the Young People.” Speech, Poland, June 3, 1979. Vatican: The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1979/june/documents.

 

John Paul II. “Homily at Jasna Gora: for the Workers.” Speech, Poland, June 6, 1979. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/1979/june/documents.

 

John Paul II. “Homily at Krakow: for Saint Stanislaus.” Speech, Poland, June 10, 1979. Vatican: The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/1979/documents.

 

John Paul II. “Homily at Victory Square.” Speech, Poland, June 2, 1979. Vatican: The Holy See. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/ homilies/1979/documents.

 

Kubik, Jan. The Power of Symbols Against the Symbols of Power. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1994, 137-180.

 

Lukowski, Jerzy and Hubert Zawadzki. A Concise History of Poland.  2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006, 307-312.

 

Walesa, Lech. “John Paul II: ‘Rescuing Morality in a Globalizing World.’” Beliefnet (2003). http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Catholic.

 

Webster, Norman. “Pope John Paul II Going Home and All Poland Waits.” Globe and Mail (June 2, 1979). Accessed November 25, 2012. http://global.factiva.com/ha/default.aspx

 



Posted by Tessie.


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